Peer Evaluation Week 4

For ‘Week 4: Cameraman – how to become one and what do they do? – Unit 3’ you showed you understood everything that was said in the lecture and even had a link to research on the topic of how to become a director. Again for ‘Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1’ you showed a great understanding of the 180 degree rule and Shot reverse shot and followed that up with good examples. You use good film examples in ‘Week 4: Introduction to mise-en-scene – Unit 4’ and go into great detail about the use of mise-en-scene and how it affects us as the audience which shows a good understanding. In ‘Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1’ you explain each camera function well and follow-up what you have said with well shot photos.

– Declan Baxter

Peer Evaluation Week 4

Peer Evaluation week 3

George explained everything in this week very well, he went into a lot of detail and showed he understood everything he wrote and didn’t just copy it. He has shown examples of everything of different types of lighting and how it affects the mood and other aspects. He has clearly shown the different roles in the lighting team/department and explained how to become each of these, he has even gone on to explain what education would be the best to get involved in the lighting area. In all of his posts he has written an evaluation to show how he found this week.

– Declan Baxter

Peer Evaluation week 3

Peer Evaluation week 2

How Do You Become a Director? Week 2 Framing Unit 3:

Very good post, very detailed and is very informative. If it started with talking about luck in the industry this would have been better.

How Does a Director Work? Week 2 Framing Unit 3:

Good follow-up to the first part of this.

Shot Types – Framing & Composition Week 2 Unit 1:

Very clear post, nicely presented.

Analysing Film Shots – Week 2 – Unit 4:

Good post, set out very nice, could use some more technical terms.

Week 2: Film stills and photographic journalism representing framing and composition – Unit 2:

Clear and nice post, need to explain more about primary and secondary research into a bit more detail.

– George Blackburn

Peer Evaluation week 2

Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1


In this task I will be going out and taking pictures using different settings on the camera for shutter speed, aperture and ISO in order to find out what the differences in settings do to the shots.

Shutter Speed:

Shutter speed is the speed in which the shutter opens and closes in order to allow light to be exposed onto the sensor. A faster shutter speed will capture a more sharp picture, whereas a slower shutter speed will capture a more blurred picture, this is because in the time that the shutter is open the subject has moved and so creates a blur effect.

Typical Shutter Speeds are:

  • 1/1000 s
  • 1/500 s
  • 1/250 s
  • 1/125 s
  • 1/60 s
  • 1/30 s
  • 1/15 s
  • 1/8 s
  • 1/4 s
  • 1/2 s
  • 1 s
  • 2 s
  • 4 s
  • 8 s
  • 15 s
  • 30 s


1/1000                                      1/500                                       1/100


Aperture is the size of the hole inside a lens that allows a certain amount of light onto the sensor of the camera. The standard sizes range from f/2.8 up to f/22, but can go much higher on better equipment.

The size of the aperture has a direct impact on the Depth of Field. Higher aperture like f.4.5 has a shallower depth of field and so only objects in the forefront of the picture will be sharp, whereas the background will look blurred, however lower aperture like f/29 has both the foreground and background sharp.


f/4.5                                          f/13                                          f/29


ISO measures how sensitive the digital sensor on the camera is. In a dark situation a higher ISO level is used in order to get a higher shutter speed in order to get the exposure correct. There are disadvantages to using a high ISO though. There can be a lot of visual noise or graininess on the photo. The standard ISO levels are:

  • 100
  • 200
  • 400
  • 800
  • 1600
  • 3200
  • 6400


200                                           1600                                        6400


This was a particularly interesting lesson and I like learning more about the functions of a camera and learning new skills. I didn’t know much about the different settings on the camera before this lesson so it was helpful for future projects to know this.

Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1

Week 4: Introduction to mise-en-scene – Unit 4


I will be looking into what mise-en-scene is and how it effects what we see on screen.

What is mise-en-scene?

The mise-en-scene is everything in frame, this is not a term used by the production team on a movie, but it is what the viewer interprets about a location or character by what is on-screen. If a character is in a classroom and the body language of all the students is slouched it gives the impression they’re not ready to learn and maybe the school isn’t very good.

Examples of mise-en-scene are:

  • Costumes
  • Hair
  • Props
  • Locations
  • Body Language
  • Technology – Lighting, Diegetic Sound (not everyone thinks sound should be included in the mise-en-scene)
  • Placing of Actors



This example is from Edward Scissorhands. The whole street of houses are multi-coloured and so are the cars, this is to show that the area they are living in is quite middle class and that the people living there are relatively wealthy.


This is another example from Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s Chest. Everything in this shot portrays that they’re located at some kind of native tribe. The clothes the two tribesman are wearing are very basic and neither are wearing tops, but they do have makeup on their bodies which is common in tribes. The placement of human skulls in the shot shows that the people there are savages, as have killed people and hollowed out their skulls to have them on display. Jack seems to be wearing some sort of  crown on his head which shows that he is the leader or king of the tribe. His clothes are also clearly not from the tribe so it shows that he is an outsider that has come into the tribe.


It was interesting to learn about how our brains subliminally decode what we’re seeing on-screen in order to carve our opinion about a character by the things they wear and what they own. For my future productions I now know that mise-en-scene is important and to incorporate it into the videos I make.

Week 4: Introduction to mise-en-scene – Unit 4

Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1


In this work we are going to take pictures as a sort of storyboard to show a story using different shot types.

For this task we used a range of different shot types, including Over the Shoulder, Medium Long Shot and Close up. We storyboarded a greeting and then took pictures to portray what the video would have been like.


The 180° Rule:

This rule means that when 2 characters are 180 degree ruleconversing or interacting in some way, then there is an imaginary line through the characters called an “axis”. The cameras must stay within one 180° side of these characters. If a shot was to be on the other side then it would break the special awareness of the viewer and detract them from the story and make them realise that it’s not real. This is because if character A is on the right of the frame and character B is on the left, but then someone speaks and the shot changes to show the other person talking, but they’re on the same side as the other person was it will give the impression that someone is talking to themselves.

Shot Reverse Shot:

This is a technique used in film in which one character is seen looking off-screen or at another character, and then the next shot is another character looking back in the opposite direction. The viewer will then put together that these two characters are interacting with each other.

shot-reverse-shotThis is an example of shot reverse shot, it is often used in conjunction with the Over the Shoulder shot (OTS).


It was good to go out and test our skills so that we can fully understand the 180 degree rule. I liked this way of learning more than just writing it up, as it helps to full reinforce what we learned.

Week 4: Introduction to Cameras – Unit 1

Week 4: Cameraman – how to become one and what do they do? – Unit 3


In this task I will be looking into what a cameraman is and what they do, ill also be looking into what the best way to become one is and if there is more than one way.

There are 4 main jobs revolving around camera work, they are:

  • Camera Assistant
  • Camera Operator
  • Focus Puller
  • Director of Photography/Cinematographer

How to become one:

Most people start out as a Camera Operator on medium or low scale movies, or a Camera Assistant on a large-scale operation. The usual route into one of these jobs is to have a degree in film production that you specialize in Camera/Cinematography in the third year.

At Arts University Bournemouth you can do a 3 year course in Film Production and then specialize in BA (Hons) Film Production (Cinematography)

Another option is to start out as a runner on a set, but this route requires a lot of luck to be able to get a job as a Camera Operator, as you will be the Camera Assistant’s assistant in a way. It also requires you to have family connections of some sort in order to get the job in the first place.

Camera Assistant:

The job of the Camera Assistant is to help the Camera Operator in any way he needs, but mainly to set-up and prepare equipment (including Camera, Tripod, Lens etc) before the Operator turns up. This is to save time so they can get straight into shooting the scene.

Camera Operator:

The Camera Operator is in charge of physically controlling the camera and pressing record. It is more than standing still with a camera on a tripod though, aerial shots may mean the Camera Operator is on a crane or cherry picker and is filming from there. More creative films like “Birdman” that uses lots of Long Takes require the Camera Operator to use a steady cam and be very versatile and film for a long continuous amount of time. Tracking Shots usually take place on a dolly and require the Camera Operator to sit in a small trolley on a track and get the Camera Assistant to push it along.

Focus Puller:

During a shoot the Focus Puller changes the focus on the lens of the camera, as it is impossible for the Camera Operator to do this whilst filming. This is usually to divert attention to another character in a shot. Focus Pullers start out measuring the distance of the characters and then doing calculations to figure out what they need to change, however experienced Focus Pullers will just know the distances and be able to do it. If an actor moves from 2m away from the camera to 8m away from the camera then the Focus Puller will change the distance setting on the lens in order to keep the sharpness on the actor.

Director of Photography/Cinematographer:

The Cinematographer is in charge of all of the camera crews working on the set of a movie. They create the “visual identity” of the movie in accordance to what the Director wants. He will select the Camera, lens, different filters, and film stock in order to realise the vision of the directors film. The Director of Photography also is in charge of Framing and composition in some instances of the film, and helps out the Editor in post production with colour correction.


I now understand how there are different roles of people that all work with cameras, and that the cameraman doesn’t change the focus, but instead there is a separate job, the focus puller, for this.

Week 4: Cameraman – how to become one and what do they do? – Unit 3