Semiology – the study of signs and symbols and their use or interpretation. 
Aperture – The size of the hole in the lens, measured in f/stops and usually written in numbers such as 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6,8, 11, 16 and 22.
“The lower the f/stop—the larger the opening in the lens—the less depth of field—the blurrier the background.
The higher the f/stop—the smaller the opening in the lens—the greater the depth of field—the sharper the background.” 
Signify – What it means (Connotation)
Signifier – What it is (Denotation)
Differential Focus – Intentionally keeping areas of the shot out of focus whilst keeping other parts in sharp focus to create an effect
Denotation – What it is
Connotation – What it means
ISO – Is how sensitive the image sensor in the camera is to light, based on what ISO setting you use
Shutter speed – The length of time in which the image sensor is exposed to light
Quantitative – More simplified answer and can only be answered in a set number of ways
Qualitative – More detailed answer and can be answered or interpreted in an unlimited amount of ways
Key light – The main and most powerful light used to light up a subject
Fill light – The secondary light used to fill the other side of the subject in order to remove shadows
Back light – The light used to separate the subject from the background in order to portray a 3D feeling even though the screen is 2D
Mise-en-scene – Everything in the frame, including Costume, Props, Location, Hair and Makeup and more
Depth of Field – How shallow or deep it is will change what parts of the shot are sharp and blurry
FPS/Frames per second – The number of photos in one second of footage, typically 24 in movies, and 25 on TV in Europe and 30 in the USA
The Rule of Thirds – The rule states that the subject of a shot should be placed on one of the two imaginary lines that are at equal distances a third of the way into the shot on each side.